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REFERENCE BOOK 

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~0 THE STUDENT: 

Bustles, hoop skirts, and boned bodices come 
and go, but aprons, like table napkins, seem 
always necessary. 

Many modern-type aprons are exploited and 
many have much merit, but the home-loving 
woman likes the clean, fresh apron to put on for 
the ceremony of dinner getting or for the bit of 
special sewing. And in between, the apron is a 
safeguard, for many, kinds of household work. 
Therefore, practically all types are considered so 
that one may choose and make that which pleases 
her most, and vary the design or idea to suit her 
own special fancy. 

Frequent laundering requires materials of good 
quality and color. Neatness is $ynonymous with 
aprons and as a result necessitates careful work- 
manship, neat seams, and good finishing. 

M.B.P. 



Copyright, 1922, by International Educational Publishing Company 

Copyright in Great Britain. All rights reserved 

Printed in U. S. A. 



APRONS AND CAPS 



HOUSE APRONS AND CAPS 



STYLES AND MATERIALS 

1. Aprons, which are really of three types — house aprons, fancy 
aprons, and sewing aprons — may truly be called friends of the 
housewife. Not only do aprons that are appropriate enable the 
home woman to appear clean and tidy around the house, no 
matter how much or how little housework she may perform, but 
they give her a genuine comfort that is difficult to express. 

2. The number of styles of aprons that serve to protect the 
clothes from dust and dirt seems to be unlimited. They vary from 
small aprons that tie around the waist to aprons that cover the 
entire dress, even to the sleeves. 

Aprons are known by various names, too, but in many instances 
the names are used simply to distinguish styles of different design- 
ers, the aprons being much the same in appearance, except, per- 
haps, for a little change here and there, more noticeable in the 
material and trimming than anywhere else. 

3. House aprons, to meet the requirements of the house- 
wife, must be serviceable. For this reason, it is always advisable to 
use such materials as calico, percale, gingham, and chambray in 
their construction. These are all good, common-sense materials, 
because they launder easily, appear fresh and clean when laundered, 
and have that smooth surface so necessary in housework to prevent 
the collection of dust, dirt, and grime. Their superiority over 
loosely woven fabrics, which not only are unattractive but collect 
dirt readily, is so evident that no mistake is ever made in their 
selection for this purpose. 

COPYRIGHTED BY INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING COMPANY. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 

§12 



[2] 



2 APRONS AND CAPS § 12 

4. With house aprons, many women like to wear house caps 
that match. Such caps, in most instances, lend greatly to a woman's 
appearance, and, at the same time, prove very useful articles. Many 
are the designs of such house caps, and when properly and taste- 
fully made of material that matches or harmonizes with the apron 
material, very pleasing are the effects that result. 

5. Several styles of practical house aprons and a simple style 
of sweeping cap, as well as the methods of making them, are 
here considered. The work in connection with them is simple, 
and you will get good results if you are guided by the fact that the 
essentials of house-apron construction are simply neat designs, 
appropriate materials, and good workmanship. As you will readily 
agree, a house apron, if of colored fabric, must be sufficiently strong 
in color to bear frequent laundering ; it must not be so firmly woven 
that the dirt will not come but with the starch in laundering; and 
the workmanship must be so good that the seams and hems will not 
roughen out by hard wear or by frequent washing. 

Aprons of sheer material are worn in the home, too. But such 
aprons are properly classed as fancy aprons and sewing aprons and 
are considered later. 



VARIETIES OF HOUSE APRONS AND CAPS 



BODICE APRON 

6. The bodice apron, Fig. 1, is of particular merit because it 
so closely resembles the lines of a dress and also gives excellent 
protection, a feature that is essential in a house apron. A point 
of interest in the design of this apron is that the position of 
the waist line, or the length of the bodice, may be varied to make it 
individually becoming or in accordance with prevalent styles. The 
manner in which the straps are arranged over the back waist portion 
prevents any possibility of their slipping off the shoulders. 

7. Material and Pattern Requirements. — As illustrated, 
the bodice apron is of cretonne, which makes its effect very decora- 
tive and attractive. Such material is desirable for garden aprons 
and for house aprons intended for only occasional wear, but for an 
apron that must withstand common usage and frequent launderings, 






§12 



APRONS AND CAPS 



percale, calico, gingham, and chambray are preferable. For the 
average figure, provide 2j yards of material 36 inches wide. 

For the development of this apron, you may use a special pattern 
of similar design, or if you have a bodice pattern with the front 
portion extended from the 
under arm to the center back, 
you may use this portion and 
apply straight straps at the 
shoulders to extend across the 
back and use a full width of 
material for the front skirt 
portion of the apron, with a 
quarter width on each side. 

8. Cutting- Out the 
Material. — Fold the material 
lengthwise through the center ; 
then, if you have a special 
apron pattern, place the front 
skirt portion at one end of the 
material so that its center- 
front edge is along the fold. 
Next, place. the bodice, or bib 
portion, of the apron so that 
its lower edge is next to the 
front skirt portion and its 
center front is along the fold. 
Arrange the remainder of the 
pattern pieces so that the 
material may be cut to the best 
advantage, placing all these 
sections lengthwise of the 
fabric. 

If you have no pattern for 
the pocket, strings, and straps, 
cut the pocket about 7 inches 
long and 9 inches wide, the 
strings about 24 inches long and 5 inches wide, and the straps 
about 16 inches long and 3^ inches wide, cutting all of these sections 
on the straight of the material. 




Fig. 1 



[2] 



4 APRONS AND CAPS § 12 

9. Constructing- the Apron. — Join the side seam lines of 
the skirt portion by means of machine fells or French seams, and 
turn and stitch narrow hems on the back edges of the side portions. 
Then gather the waist line, or upper edge. 

Next, turn and stitch narrow hems on the lengthwise edges of 
the straps and strings. Finish one end of each string with a f- or 
1-inch hem and gather the opposite ends. 

Next, to determine the correct position for the straps and strings, 
place the front bodice section on the figure ; arrange the straps as 
you desire to have them and pin them in position. If the bodice 
ends at the center back seem too long, turn under as much as you 
desire, but do not make the waist line of the apron at all close- 
fitting or it will not appear well and, besides, will not prove so 
comfortable. Then pin the strings in position at the points pro- 
vided for them. 

Before removing the bodice, mark the straps with chalk or pins to 
indicate the line where they join the bodice section in back; then 
loosen them from the bodice at these points, but not at the shoulder. 

Finish the shoulder joinings of the straps to the bodice and also 
the joinings of the strings to the bodice by means of machine fells 
or French seams. Finish all the bodice edges, with the exception of 
the waist line, with very narrow bias facings. Turn the waist line 
under just once and arrange the gathered portion under this turned 
edge, distributing the fulness so that just a little will fall at the 
front. Stitch the lower edge of the bodice to the gathered skirt 
portion ; then trim the raw edges close on the wrong side and over- 
cast them or cover them with a narrow bias facing. 

Finish the free ends of the straps with -|-inch hems and sew snap 
fasteners to them and to the bodice edge where they are to join. 

Complete the apron by making and applying the patch pockets and 
turning and stitching a hem at the lower edge of the skirt portion. 

10. Applying- Bias Binding. — If you wish, you may finish 
the edges of the bodice portion, sash and pockets of the bodice apron 
with bias binding. This is an especially desirable trimming for 
checked gingham. 

Instead of applying the binding by first placing the bias strip over 
the right side of the material, stitching it in position, and then 
turning it over to the wrong side and whipping it down, you may 
follow the easier method shown in Fig. 2. 



§12 



APRONS AND CAPS 



To bind the edges in this manner, first place the right side of 
the bias strip to the wrong side of the apron, and stitch as at a; 
that is, with a scant |-inch seam. Then turn the binding over on 
the right side, turn under the edge £ inch or a trifle more, and 
baste and stitch again, as at b. By turning the binding to the right 
side and stitching, you will be assured of catching the turned edge 
and also of accurate stitching on the right side. 

If ready-made binding is to be used, it should be \ inch wide 
when finished, so as to catch enough of the material to hold well. 
Baste it in position, as at c, and stitch it in place ; or, better still, pro- 
vided ) r ou have had sufficient experience in using the binder, one 



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Fig. 2 

of the valuable attachments of every sewing machine, bind all the 
edges by machine, and in this way save much time. In following 
either method, bear in mind that most of the beauty of this apron 
depends on neat workmanship. 

To become proficient in using the binder, you will do well to 
practice first on straight edges and then on such curved edges as 
those used for this apron. Owing to the different makes of sewing 
machines, explicit directions for using the binder cannot be given 
here. In all cases where attachments are to be employed, direc- 
tions for their proper use should be ascertained from the book of 
instructions that accompanies the sewing machine. 



APRONS AND CAPS 



§12 



LONG-SLEEVED HOUSE APRON 

11. In Fig. 3 is shown the front and in Fig. 4 the back of a 
cover-all apron with long sleeves set into the natural armhole line. 

No housewife's outfit seems complete with- 
out a big, long-sleeved apron of this kind 
to cover and protect the entire dress or to 
wear on days when there is much work to 
be done around the house or in the kitchen. 
This style of apron is sometimes worn as a 
dress with a skirt to match, as it serves 
practically the same purpose as a house 
dress when much cleaning has to be done 
in the home. 

As you will observe, this apron is fitted 
with a Dutch collar, which is simple and 
practical for all sleeved aprons and house 
dresses on which a flat collar is desired. 

The sleeves are fitted with cuffs, and at 
the back, where the garment is buttoned, 
there is a belt that serves to draw in some 
of the fulness and thus adds to the attrac- 
tiveness of the apron. 

A dart extending from the shoulder to 
the bust line is taken on each side of the 
center front, midway between the neck 
and the armhole, to give the necessary ful- 
ness across the bust and yet permit the 
apron to hang down straight from the 
bust. These darts are also an advantage 
in that they overcome any unnecessary 
fulness in front and permit the apron to 
keep out of the way of the wearer when 
she is working. 




Fig. 3 



12. Material and Pattern Re- 
quirements. — Percale, gingham, cham- 
bray, or calico is excellent for an apron 
of this kind. For the apron 4 yards of 32- or 36-inch material, or 4| 
yards of 27-inch material is sufficient for the average figure. 



§12 



APRONS AND CAPS 



A one-piece apron pattern having a dart that extends from the 
shoulder to the bust point may be used for cutting this apron, but if 
you prefer, you may use a plain-waist pattern if you provide a dart 
and add a skirt portion of the desired length. Also, a slightly gath- 
ered sleeve with straight cuff and a Dutch-collar pattern are required. 

13. Cutting Out the Material. — 

Fold the material lengthwise through the 
center. Then, if you are using a full-length 
apron pattern, place this so that the center 
front is along the fold, the center back is 
along the selvages, and the other pattern 
pieces are arranged in the manner that 
permits the most advantageous use of the 
material. 

If you prefer to use a plain-waist pat- 
tern, follow the method illustrated in 
Fig. 5. First of all, slash the front por- 
tion of the waist pattern from the center 
of the shoulder line to the lower edge on 
a line parallel with the center front. Lap 
and pin the pattern pieces together at the 
waist line so that they will spread apart 
about 1^ inches at the shoulder, or more 
than 1^ inches if the pattern is being made 
for a person having a prominent bust. 
Then place the center front of the pattern 
on the lengthwise fold of the material, as 
shown, so that the waist line of the pattern, 
as at a, is the skirt length, plus a hem allow- 
ance, from the end of the material. Then 
from a point a seam's width beyond the 
under arm at the armhole, draw a straight 
line toward the end of the material, flaring 
this to make the apron of the width you 
desire at the lower edge. 

If you are using narrow material, you 
may provide piecings, as at b. Cut these 
small gores a little longer and a little wider than desired, so as to 
insure sufficient size after the seams are made. 




Fig. 4 



APRONS AND CAPS 



§12 





In stitching these to the apron, let the selvage 
edges of the apron and gores come together. After 
they are stitched in place, the under-arm line may- 
be extended so as to obtain a good, even line for 
the entire length. Any surplus over the seam allow- 
ance may be trimmed away after the gores have 
been stitched on. 

Outline the bottom of the skirt portion as illus- 
trated, curving it up toward the side seam line. 

Next, lay the back portion of the waist pattern on 
the material, as illustrated, placing it so that the 
center-back line is 1^ inches from the selvage, to 
allow enough material beyond the pattern for hems, 
and there is a space of about 1 inch between the 
front and the back shoulder lines, as at c, for the 
shoulder seams. 

With the back pinned securely in this position, 
measure out a seam's width from the under-arm 
line at the armhole and from this point draw a 
straight under-arm line, as shown, flaring this to 
provide almost as much width in the back skirt 
portion as in the front and making this line the same 
in length as the front under-arm line. Then draw 
the line for the lower edge of the skirt, curving this 
down gradually to the selvage. Also, if you wish, 
mark the allowance for the hem on the material. 

For the belt pattern, use a straight piece of paper 
3 inches wide and equal in length to the width-of- 
back measurement. As the belt should be made of 
two thicknesses of material, place this pattern, if 
possible, so that one lengthwise edge is along the 
fold of the material. The cuffs, also, are to be 
made of two thicknesses ; therefore, place the cuff 
pattern so that it is the width of this pattern from 
the edge, as at d. Place the collar pattern so that 
the back edge is along a lengthwise thread, as at e. 
Also, place the sleeve pattern in the usual manner. 

In cutting out the apron, follow the lines marked 
for the skirt portion, and cut around the remainder 
of the pattern edges, allowing $ inch for seams. 



§ 12 APRONS AND CAPS 9 

14. A sweeping cap made of the same material as the apron and 
worn with it would add to the utility and attractiveness of the 
costume. Pattern pieces for the sweeping cap, which is considered 
later in this lesson, are shown as they should be laid in position at 
one end of the material on which the apron pattern pieces are placed. 

15. Constructing- the Apron. — First, baste the darts in the 
front portion and baste the shoulder and under-arm seams together 
in the regular way; also turn hems 1 inch wide at the center 
back and stitch them in position. As these hems are perfectly 
straight when carefully traced, it is rarely necessary to baste them. 
Next, gather the lower edge of each sleeve into each cuff band and 
stitch these parts together; also, French-seam the sleeve and stitch 
through both the sleeve and the cuff, taking care to secure the ends 
at the bottom of each cuff so that the seams will not be liable to rip 
open. The seams of the apron may be French-seamed or made 
into plain seams and then overcasted, as desired. 

To see how the apron fits, baste the sleeves in and then slip the 
apron on and pin it together in the back. Notice the neck first; if 
it is too high, trim it out a little. However, do not attempt to fit 
the apron close, as it is intended to be rather loose. Notice, also, 
whether the sleeves are put in so that the lengthwise thread of the 
material comes at the shoulder seam, and if there are gathers, see 
that they are correctly adjusted. At this time, too, turn the length 
at the bottom. An apron of this kind should be sufficiently long 
to cover every part of the skirt under it. 

With all these points taken care of, remove the garment and pro- 
ceed to finish it, remembering that it buttons down the back and 
has across the back a belt that buttons in place, two buttons being 
used on each side. 

16. Making and Applying a Dutch Collar. — While the 
making of this apron is simple and you should be able to perform the 
work without explicit directions, it may be well here to give in detail 
the applying of the Dutch collar. 

If bias banding is to be used, it is well to stitch around the neck 
line with the sewing machine, as shown at a, Fig. 6, before putting 
the collar on, to prevent the neck of the apron from stretching out 
of shape, for no matter how much care is taken in putting the bias 
banding on, the neck of the apron is sure to stretch a trifle. An 
apron of this kind should fit close to the neck and not pouch out at 



10 



APRONS AND CAPS 



§12 



the center front, and, as a rule, if machine stitching is done in the 
manner mentioned, the neck of the apron will be sufficiently strong 
to resist stretching in the making of the garment, as well as in the 
wearing of it. 

Next, finish the outer edges of the Dutch collar with a bias band- 
ing of the material. Of course, if you desire, rickrack braid or bias 
banding of a contrasting color may be used ; however, the bias band- 
ing of the material of which the apron is being made is very 
attractive and satisfactory, and, besides, is inexpensive. Stitch the 




Fig. 6 

banding on the wrong side of the collar portion, turn it over to the 
right side, as shown, and baste and stitch it in position. 

Then, baste and stitch the collar portions to the neck of the apron 
with the center front, of the collar to the center front of the 
apron, and the back edge of the collar even with the center of 
the hem at the back of the apron, as at b. Face the neck with a 
narrow bias facing, as shown at c, which should be long enough 
to extend all the way around the neck of the apron. Turn the bias 
facing over to the wrong side of the apron and stitch it down in 
the manner indicated at d, taking care to turn the collar back from 
the apron so that it will not be caught in the stitching. Then finish 
off the thread ends at the center back neatly. 



12 



APRONS AND CAPS 



11 



If the material stretches easily, a very narrow, straight strip of 
the material, one that is just wide enough to cover the raw seam, is 
preferable to a bias strip for binding the neck. For this strip, the 
selvage edge is perhaps best, as it saves one thickness of material 
and may be stitched directly on the edge for a finish. Extra care 
must be taken where a straight band is employed, for it must be put 
on so carefully as not to cause the upper edge to pouch out. 



\ 






17. Petticoat for Wear With Sleeved Apron. — Since the 
sleeved apron here discussed completely covers a person's figure, it 
is not compulsory, as has already been stated, that a dress be worn 
under it, and as such an apron is cool and comfortable for working, 
many women like to com- 
plete the outfit with a petti- 
coat made of the same 
material as the apron. 
Fig. 7 shows a petticoat 
that is practical and satis- 
factory for wear with the 
sleeved apron, as it is plain 
and very easily made. 

A two- or three-piece 
skirt pattern may be used 
for this petticoat. The 
opening of the petticoat 
should come at the left side, 
so as to avoid two openings 
at the same place. 

The petticoat, or skirt, is 
fitted in the usual way, and 
the hem is so turned that 
its length will correspond 
exactly with the apron with which it is to be worn. A straight 
band of the material or a casing may be used to finish the petticoat 
at the waist line. 

For trimming, a 6|-inch bias ruffle is used, this ruffle being secured 
in position with a -|-inch bias band of the material used for the gar- 
ment. As you will observe, the ruffle of this petticoat is made rather 
scant, so as not to push out the apron and cause it to be in the way 
of the wearer while she is working. As a rule, material equal in 




Fig. 7 



m 



12 



APRONS AND CAPS 



12 



length to one and one-half times the width of the skirt at the bottom 
is used for a ruffle ; but, in this case, a length equal to just one and 
one-third the skirt width is employed. 

Finish the flat-stitched placket of this petticoat with two buttons 
on the placket and one on the band. If you desire, you may sew 
two loops of tape on the inside of the skirt band, so that the petticoat 
may be hung up easily when not in use. 



SWEEPING CAP 

18. Material and Pattern Requirements. — A sweeping 
cap that is especially desirable for wear with a long-sleeved apron 

is shown in Fig. 8 (a) and 
(&). The style of this cap 
is such that when it is made 
of suitable material it an- 
swers very well as an auto- 
mobile cap ; in fact, it has 
many possibilities and gives 
the woman who sews a 
chance to develop originality 
in trimming it so as to add 
to its effectiveness. 

For developing the cap, 
any one of the materials 
suggested for the long- 
sleeved apron is suitable, -| yard usually being all that is required. 
A pattern in two pieces, one for the crown, or the part of the 
cap that rests on the head, and the other for the vizors, or brim 
portions, which provide a shield for the eyes, is essential. 

19. Constructing the Cap. — Follow the plan illustrated in 
Fig. 5 in cutting out the cap, placing the longer straight edge of the 
crown portion on a lengthwise thread. 

Begin the construction of the cap by finishing the curved, or upper, 
edge of the crown portion and the outer curved edge of the vizors 
in the manner suggested in connection with the construction of the 
apron. If bias banding or braid is used for the apron, it should be 
used for the cap, too. Hem the lower edge of the crown piece with 
a |-inch hem, as indicated in Fig. 9. Then, beginning at the center 




Fig. 8 



12 



APRONS AND CAPS 



13 



of the upper part of the crown, fold the crown into tiny plaits, as 
shown. Place the points of the vizor pieces ^ inch apart, as at a, 
and then pin the crown portion to the vizors all the way down the 
side fronts. 

Put the cap on next, lap the hems over each other, and then bring 
the crown down in a point, as shown in Fig. 8 (o). If the cap is too 
large, make the plaits a little deeper on the top of the crown and fold 
in the vizor parts, as at b and c, Fig. 9, so that they will appear 
shorter. If the cap is too small, make the plaits smaller and the 
extension of the crown beyond b and c longer. When the plaits are 
properly adjusted, stitch the crown portion to the vizors, stitching 




Fig. 9 

directly on the edge of the band so that the plaits will be held in 
their correct position. 

Next, work four buttonholes along the right-hand side of the cap 
from the corner d to the center back e, and then, on the left, sew 
three buttons to correspond with the first three buttonholes on the 
right. Button these three buttons next, and bring the buttonhole e 
at the center down over the button and buttonhole at the extreme 
edge of the cap to secure it in position and thus get the pointed 
effect shown in Fig. 8 (a). The buttons and buttonholes of this cap 
make it possible to open out the cap in ironing, a decided advantage 
when there is a great deal of fulness in the crown part of a cap. 



14 



APRONS AND CAPS 



12 



KIMONO APRON 

20. In Fig. 10 is shown the front view and in Fig. 11 the back 
view of a kimono apron. This apron serves practically the same 

purpose as the sleeved apron just 
described, and it has found a place in the 
hearts of many women. Without doubt, 
it is the most popular of the house 
aprons, possibly because of its simplicity 
and the fact that very little time is re- 
quired to make it and very little labor to 
launder it. Then, too, the neat way in 
which the neck is finished is of special 
interest. 

The kimono apron is becoming to 
slender and medium figures, but it is not 
especially satisfactory for stout women 
or those having a proportionately large 
bust. When the bust is large, a dart 
from the shoulder to the bust, as in the 
long-sleeved apron, is necessary in order 
that the apron may hang straight from 
the bust. Such a dart would not appear 
well in a kimono apron having a seam 
through the center of the sleeve and, of 
course, could not be made in a kimono 
apron not having this seam. Then, too, 
the kimono apron gives a very broad 
effect through the shoulders and is not 
nearly so becoming as one cut from a 
plain foundation pattern having the 
natural armhole line. 

21. Material and Pattern Re- 
quirements. — For this kimono apron, 
from 3^ to 4 yards of 30-inch material is 
needed, depending on the height of the 
woman who is to wear it. 
To determine how much material should be provided for the 
apron, including the hems, measure from the lower edge of the 




Fig. 10 



12 



APRONS AND CAPS 



15 



skirt in front up over one shoulder and down to the lower edge of the 
skirt in the back and add to this amount twice the width you wish 
to make the hems. 

For the bias banding of the collar, sleeves, and belt, which should 
be cut on a true bias, an additional -J yard of material should be 
provided. This material will allow J inch 
to be turned in on each edge and leave a 
finished band about 1| or 2 inches wide. 

Of the apron materials, the wider ones are 
most satisfactory for this style; light-ground 
percale with small figures, stripes, or checks 
is very attractive, especially when piping of 
a contrasting color is used. As a rule, mate- 
rial suitable for piping may be obtained from 
the scrap bag. However, if there happens 
to be no material on hand suitable for trim- 
ming, ^ yard of material 24 inches or more 
in width, to be cut into strips for piping, 
should be provided. Each piping strip 
should be cut on a true bias 1^ inches wide. 

A kimono-apron pattern having a shoulder 
seam that extends down through the center 
of the sleeve may be used for cutting this 
model. The apron may also be cut very 
easily with the use of merely a kimono- waist 
pattern, the lines of this being extended to 
form the skirt portion, as in the development 
of the long-sleeved apron. 

22. Cutting Out the Material. — In 

order to cut out the kimono apron, fold the 
material through the center lengthwise and 
place the kimono-apron pattern, provided you 
have made one ready, so that its center front 
and center back are along the fold of the 
material. 

If you intend to use a kimono-waist pat- 
tern instead of an apron pattern, fold the 
waist pattern together through the center of the sleeve, thus bringing 
the front under arm exactly even with the back under-arm line ; 




Fig. n 



16 



APRONS AND CAPS 



§12 



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then slash the pattern on this fold from the neck 
through the sleeve portion, so that it may be 
separated. 

The object in making the shoulder seams is to 
lift the front up at the under arms so that the 
apron will not drop down, as well as to keep the 
center back of the apron on a lengthwise thread 
of the material. Then, too, an apron cut with 
the seam on the shoulder is preferable to one 
without a seam, for it will not fall out and be in 
your way when you are working. 

To determine the right length for the front of 
the apron, measure from the center front of the 
neck down to the desired skirt length. With 
this length known and the material arranged as 
shown in Fig. 12 — that is, folded lengthwise 
through the center and its selvage edges pinned 
together — place the front part of the waist pat- 
tern on the material so that its center front is on 
the fold and the neck curve, as at a, is the dis- 
tance determined for the apron length, plus the 
hem allowance, away from the left end of the 
material. Pin this part of the pattern securely 
to the material, and then proceed to pin the back 
part of the kimono-waist pattern on, keeping the 
neck edge, as at b, ^ inch from the fold and the 
waist line near the bottom of the pattern 2 inches 
from the fold, as at c, thus making the back 
width correspond more nearly to the front. 

Next, measure down from the neck line at the 
center back of the pattern to a point correspond- 
ing to the length that the apron is desired, plus 
allowance for a hem, as at d, and draw a line 
across the material at this point. In determin- 
ing what this length should be, measure from 
the center-back neck line of the figure to the 
desired skirt length. Next, extend the under-arm 
lines down from the under arms of the waist 
pattern, as shown, making the lines in the manner 
explained in connection with the sleeved apron. 



§ 12 APRONS AND CAPS 17 

23. Having proceeded thus f ar, cut out the material in the usual 
way, slightly curving the lower edge toward the under arm and 
allowing f-inch seams on all edges, so that the French seam may 
be used in finishing. 

If you wish sleeves longer than the width of the material permits, 
it will be necessary to piece each one at its lower edge. For the 
front part of the sleeves, the piecings may be provided as shown 
at e, and for the back part of the sleeves they may be cut as indicated 
at /. It may also be necessary to add narrow gores to the front of 
the skirt, which may be cut as shown at g. The piecing is done in 
the manner explained in connection with the sleeved apron. The 
bias binding to be used in constructing this apron is marked for 
cutting in the manner shown at h. 

24. No provision is made at this time for the square neck of this 
apron ; the better plan is to put the garment on to determine the 
position of the neck line and then trim it out correctly. If a square 
neck is desired and it is cut out before the garment is fitted, there is 
always danger of getting it too low in the back. A neck so cut out 
spoils all the charm of the square neck; in fact, the back should 
never be cut down more than one-fourth of the length cut in front 
if you wish to make it balance well and thus insure a pleasing 
neck line. 

Before removing the kimono pattern, slash the material from the 
neck line at the center back down to a point 4 inches below the waist 
line so as to provide for the opening in the back. 

25. Constructing the Garment. — After removing the pat- 
tern from the material, finish the placket opening with a flat-stitched 
placket, making it so that the right side will lap over the left. Use 
very narrow seams in putting the back finish on, so as to avoid too 
much of a plait at the lower end. Next, French-seam the shoulder 
seams, as well as the under-arm seams, and put the apron on. When 
the apron is adjusted properly, turn a hem at the bottom and turn 
the sleeve edges to the right so that they will assume a good line. 

26. Next, take the bias pieces of material that were allowed in 
cutting and fit them around the neck ; miter the corners as previously 
directed, remembering to place these strips at a point where they 
will give the proper neck line ; that is, so that it will not be too high 
nor too low for comfort when the strips are securely pinned in 
position. 



18 



APRONS AND CAPS 



12 



Take off the apron, next, and lay it out on a table to make sure 
that the pieces around the neck are exactly even. If one side appears 
to be a little lower or higher than the other, straighten it, for some- 
times, in fitting a bias piece in this way, one corner may drop a little 
lower than the other and not be noticeable until it is measured up. 
As has been mentioned before, you will always do well to measure 
up each side of a garment after fitting to make sure that it is 
properly balanced, and especially is this necessary when trimming 
is applied in the fitting. 

Next, trim away the neck edge even with the upper edge of the bias 
facing ; bind the neck edge with piping all the way around, as shown 











*yf • 


rom 


f,*? f ~~ 


HP^-';';.;'-./ ,.;V 


4\ 






"'■'■'' ' - JT\ ' 

•••••.-■•• 





Fig. 13 

at a, Fig. 13 ; and put on the bias band of the material, which has its 
lower, outer edge piped. Then, turn the upper edge of the bias 
band over to the wrong side and baste it to the piping, as shown 
at b ; also, baste the outer edge to the apron, as at c, taking care to 
keep the band the same width all the way around. 

27. When this trimming is basted in position, baste the piping 
to the upper edge of the bias trimming band that has been provided 
for the sleeves. Then bind the lower edge of each sleeve and baste 
the banding flat to the sleeve over the piping thus formed. 

Next, prepare the belt by cutting two strips of bias banding 
3 inches longer than the width-of-back measure and 2 inches wide, 



§ 12 APRONS AND CAPS 19 

and binding one strip all the way around. Then place over this 
the other piece of banding, right side up, and, turning under its 
edges, baste it flat. In this way, all the raw edges will be inside of 
the belt, and it will appear well finished. 

At this stage, try on the apron to see whether the facing fits cor- 
rectly at the neck. It should be perfectly smooth and not appear 
drawn in any place. Next, pin the belt across the back so as to 
mark its position, placing a pin opposite the point where it comes at 
the under arms, so that a button may be sewed to the seam at this 
place. 

28. With the apron thus advanced, proceed with the final stitch- 
ing. Stitch directly on each edge of the bias banding at the neck, on 
each sleeve, and also on the belt. Have this stitching just as even 
and as near the edge of the band as possible, so that it will appear 
neat. Then, stitch the hem in and finish the apron by working 
buttonholes and sewing on the required buttons. 

Fig. 11 shows an attractive way in which to arrange the buttons 
for a kimono apron. Four groups of two buttons, making eight 
buttons in all, are placed down the center back. Of course, if you 
desire, the buttons may be spaced evenly, and then four or five will 
be sufficient. 

Next, sew a button at each side for the belt and work a button- 
hole in each end of the belt, so that it may be buttoned in position. 

When buttons must be sewed to the under-arm seam, it is advis- 
able to sew a small piece of tape or material underneath the seam, 
in order to impart strength to the point at which the button is sewed 
and thus keep holes from being torn in the apron. Also, in this 
style of apron, if time is very valuable, a buttonhole may be worked 
in the left end of the belt only, and the right end secured to the 
apron by sewing the button through the belt and the apron. 



[4] 



20 APRONS AND CAPS § 12 



FANCY APRONS AND SUNBONNETS 



FANCY AND SEWING APRONS 



MATERIALS AND STYLES 

29. Besides having house aprons to cover the dress well in doing 
housework, the woman in the home always finds it convenient to 
have on hand small fancy aprons that she may wear while sewing or 
while serving guests, or that she may lend to her guests. Such 
aprons in many instances add greatly to a woman's neatness and are 
generally a great source of satisfaction. Small aprons can hardly 
be considered so necessary as the house aprons, yet no woman really 
feels that her wardrobe is complete unless she is the possessor of a 
few dainty aprons. 

30. Sheer materials, such as dotted Swiss, flaxon, lawn, dimity, 
voile, and so on, are principally used in making these dainty aprons, 
and many pleasing effects are to be had with the aid of embroidery 
stitches, insertion, and lace. Small aprons might be considered 
expensive if new material had to be purchased each time a new one 
is to be made; but such is not the case. As a rule, remnants of 
material or pieces from the scrap bag may be utilized to good 
advantage, for such aprons do not require much goods. 

31. The shapes and designs of fancy and sewing aprons are 
varied, and the fashion magazines, especially at the time of the 
Christmas holidays, are usually generous in their display of unique 
aprons that may be made up as gifts or for one's own use. 

The fancy and sewing aprons here considered have been selected 
with the idea of imparting apron-construction, principles. The 
variety is such that once you know how to make them, you should 
be qualified to make practically any style of apron you may see, for 
the body part of fancy aprons is always similar ; in fact, the real 
style difference generally lies in the outline of the apron and the 
way in which it is trimmed. 



12 



APRONS AND CAPS 



21 



APRON STRINGS AND BANDS 

32. Before the making of fancy aprons is discussed, it is 
deemed advisable to illustrate and explain several finishes of apron 
strings and also the method of attaching strings and bands to aprons, 
so that explicit directions will not have to be given concerning these 
matters in the treatment of the aprons here considered. 

For dainty tea or sewing aprons, a pretty bow in the back not 
only proves an attractive finish, but makes an apron appear a little 
more dainty than if just a straight band is used. As a rule, the 
material of which such aprons are made is wide enough to permit a 
strip to be taken from the side for strings. 

So that the strings will tie well in the back, they should be made 
from 21 to 3^ inches wide, the 2^-inch width being the one usually 

mm nil! 



/ 





(«) Fig. 14 (6) 

preferred. For the average figure, two strings 18 to 20 inches 
long provide sufficient length to permit a neat bow to be tied at the 
back. Regulate the length by the waist measurement, providing 
additional length for large measurements so that the bow will not 
appear skimpy. 

33. Apron-String Finishes. — On work aprons it is per- 
missible to leave the selvage on one edge of the strings as a finish 
and thus save the time required for hemming, but for dainty aprons 
the sides of the strings must be finished alike, with a rolled hem, 
a hemstitched hem, or a machine-stitched hem. It is never advis- 
able to sew lace along the sides of apron strings, however, for in 



22 



APRONS AND CAPS 



12 



tying and untying them the lace becomes torn and wears out so 
quickly as not to justify the expenditure of time required to sew 
it on. 

The ends of the strings, on the contrary, should be finished so 
as to correspond with the apron. If very narrow lace is used as 
trimming, a square finish such as is shown in Fig. 14 (a) is very 
good, and if rickrack braid is the trimming employed, apron-string 
ends finished as shown in (b) — that is, with the corners shaped 
neatly — will appear very attractive when the bow is tied. 

Pointed ends, as in Fig. 15 (a), with lace sewed on in a rolled 
hem, produce a pleasing effect. In putting lace on a pointed 




(c) 



end, however, either miter the lace at the point of the string, or 
hold it very full, so that it will not cup up. A mitered finish is 
preferable, as it permits the lace to be ironed out more smoothly. 

Rounded ends, as in (b), are also pretty, and little cross-stitches 
worked in the end, as shown, increase the attractiveness consider- 
ably. Any small embroidery design may be worked to good advan- 
tage in the end of any fancy-apron string. 

The hem-stitch finish shown in (c), although simple, is especially 
good, and it may be used on any apron with or without lace. 



12 



APRONS AND CAPS 



23 



34. Attaching Strings and Bands. — To put the band on an 
apron is a simple operation, the chief requirement being neatness. 
If the apron is to be gathered to the band and the material is very 
sheer, the gathering stitches should be small, so that the fulness will 
ease in and not lie in plaits. 

If the machine ruffler is used for such work, then the little plaits 
formed by the ruffler will be evenly distributed ; in fact, they often 
add to the neat appearance of the apron, whereas plaits in hand-run 
gathers are rarely attractive. However, there are generally few 
gathers around the waist, as the fancy aprons themselves are so 



lit** 



Fig. 16 

small that it is always well to ease the fulness on to the band so 
that the band will not appear larger than the apron. 

Wide bands are very effective on heavy, large aprons, such as 
those worn by nurses, but on dainty aprons with strings the bands 
should rarely be more than 1^ inches wide when finished and only 
long enough to extend 2 or 3 inches beyond each side of the gath- 
ered apron. 

35. To get the best results in constructing fancy aprons, always 
notch the center of the apron at the waist line and then join it to 
the center of the band, placing the right side of the band to the wrong 
side of the apron and basting it on, all the while holding the apron 
part easy, so as to keep it from drawing in any place. 



24 



APRONS AND CAPS 



§12 



If lace is sewed to the sides of the apron, always see that it is 
caught in the band, as shown at a, Fig. 16. Turn the end of the 
band in and fold under the ends of the strings, as at b, or gather 
the unfinished end so that it is just as wide as the band will be when 
finished ; secure this end to the inside of the band, as shown ; then 
turn the edge, as at c, and stitch the band down on the right side, 
taking care to stitch at least twice across the ends where the strings 
are sewed, so that they will not pull out in wearing. Turning the 
band over on the right side in this way produces 
a neat finish, for then it may be extended far 
enough below the joining to cover the joining 
well. 




rOINTED-PANEL APRON 

36. In Fig. 17 is shown a fancy apron that 
may be called a pointed-panel apron because 
each of its panels terminates in a point. This 
apron is of a style that lends itself admirably to 
scraps from the work bag, and besides being 
easy to make it is always attractive. 

To develop the pointed-panel apron, f yard 
of flaxon, 1 yard of insertion, and 3 yards of 
lace are required. As is clearly illustrated, the 
insertion is used between the center and side 
panels of the apron, and the lace, which is 
machine-made Valenciennes, is used to outline 
the apron, as well as the two pockets, which, 
on account of their graceful shape, are very 
pretty. 



37. Cutting- Out the Material. — For 

cutting out this apron, use a specially prepared 
pattern and pin the pattern pieces to the fabric in the manner 
illustrated in Fig. 18, or, if you are using narrower material, arrange 
the pieces for as economical cutting as possible. 

If, instead of a whole piece of material, scraps are used in making 
the apron, be careful to keep the center of each gore, the center of 
each pocket, the strings, and the band on a lengthwise thread of the 
material. As all the pieces of the apron are small, it is a very easy 
matter to use up pieces of material. 



Fig. 17 



§12 



APRONS AND CAPS 



25 



In allowing for seams, take into consideration the kind of finishes 
you desire. If a rolled hem is to be used, scarcely £ inch is needed 
for the seams, but if a narrow machine hem is to be made and the 
lace is to be sewed on at the same time, then ^ inch should be 
allowed. Big seams or hems should never be used in finishing any 
garment made of sheer material unless such seams and hems are 
to be part of the trimming, for in all other cases the narrow hems 
are always more attractive. 

38. Constructing the Apron. — To make the pointed-panel 
apron, first turn the curved edges of the pockets and sew lace on 
each upper edge ; then place the pockets, one at a time, on the mate- 
rial and whip the curved edge down, taking care to have the straight 
edge come exactly even with 
the 



front edge of the side 
apron gore. 

Next, join the insertion in s. 
the seams by means of a rolled 
hem or with the machine, 
sewing the insertion in as the 
hemmed edge is stitched and 
taking care that neither the 
material nor the insertion be- 
comes stretched ; also, join the 
lace to the outer edge in the 
same manner as the insertion 
is put in, holding it a trifle full so that it will not draw in any place. 
If the lace is very wide, the best plan is to miter it at the points and 
thus avoid too much fulness. 

When all the lace is whipped on, put the band on and finish the 
strings, remembering that the neatness of an apron of this kind 
depends on the care with which it is made. 




Fig. 18 



VALENTINE APRON 

39. The valentine apron, shown in Fig. 19, is more elaborate 
than the pointed-panel apron, being trimmed with Valenciennes 
lace, beading, and ribbon. It has a bib and a large pocket that 
serves to make it particularly suitable as a sewing apron, although 
it may be worn for other purposes. 



26 



APRONS AND CAPS 



§12 



40. Material and Pattern Requirements. — A piece of 
figured voile 36 inches wide and 30 inches long is very good for 
developing this style of apron. Frequently, such a piece of mate- 
rial is left from a blouse or a lingerie dress. In addition to the 
material mentioned, 4 yards of lace, 1 yard of beading, and 
2| yards of |-inch ribbon of a harmonizing shade are needed to 
make the apron just as it is shown in the illustration. 

Attractive apron patterns may be purchased, and even if they 
should not exactly correspond in outline with the one shown in 
Fig. 19, the method of making will be much the 
same. 

If you wish to develop a pattern for the 
apron, procure a piece of paper 25 inches 
long and 12 inches wide and cut the sides and 
lower end so that it will assume a shape similar 
to that shown in Fig. 20. Make the bib part of 
the pattern 5 inches high and 3 inches wide at its 
|> widest point, and slope the waist line down at 
W the front so as to give a good line. Make the 
pocket heart-shaped at its lower edge and slope 
it downward toward the center at its upper 
edge, making it 6^ inches deep at the center and 
10 inches wide. 

41. Cutting Out the Material. — To cut 

out the material for the valentine apron, first 
fold it lengthwise through the center, as 
shown in Fig. 20, and place the center front of 
the apron-and-bib pattern on the fold of the 
material. 

Provide for the strings, as shown at a, making 

them 19 inches long and about 2\ inches wide. 

' Next, at the right-hand end of the string, cut 

the material across, and fold it over as at b, so 

that the center front of the pocket pattern may be placed on a fold. 

If rolled hems are to be used in making the apron, allow £ inch 

seams in cutting, and if machine hems are to be employed allow 

^-inch seams. 

42. Constructing the Apron. — To make the valentine apron, 
first sew beading across the top of the pocket. Then sew lace around 




Fig. 19 



§12 



APRONS AND CAPS 



27 



the remaining sides of the pocket, rolling the edge of the material, 
if it is sheer, and extending the lace to the top of the beading, as 
show in Fig. 21. In aprons of sheer material, it is advisable to 
finish the pocket Fo i d 

" ~ Center Front - - " 7 / 



with rolled hems so 
that there will be no 
raw edges to show 
through or to catch 
the lint that fre- 
quently accumulates 
in the wearing and 
the washing of the 
apron. 

Next, sew lace 
around the ed^es of 




'•9- 



Selvage 



Fig. 20 



the apron and the bib, beginning at the waist line in each case and 
continuing all the way around, as shown. Put the beading on at 
the waist line from one end of the apron, slipping it underneath the 
bib and across to the other end. No gathers are to appear in the 
front of this apron, but at each side the material should be held 
a trifle full when it is whipped to the beading. 

With this done, secure the strings to the end of the waist-line 
beading, and then run ribbon through the beading and finish with a 

tied bow at each end, so 
as to cover the joining of 
the strings. Put lace at 
the end of each string 
and extend it up 1£ 
inches on each side. 

Proceed, next, to whip 
the rolled edge of the 
pocket to the apron, 
doing this work so that 
it will not be the least bit 
drawn and yet secure 
enough not to pull out. 
A pocket as large as this 
one is generally used for 
many things; so unless it is securely sewed on, there is constant 
danger of its being pulled away from the apron. 




Fig. 21 



28 



APRONS AND CAPS 



§12 



MOTHER'S APRON 

43. In Fig. 22 is shown an apron that is known by the name 
mother's apron, because it is of a style that has stood the test of 
many years in the home and many women are partial to it. Per- 
haps it is well liked because of its ruffle, which, as is generally 
known, tends to protect the bottom of the skirt over which it is 
worn, for when grease or the like falls on the ruffle, the fulness of 
this part of the garment is great enough to 
keep such matter away from the skirt. 

44. Material and Pattern Require- 
ments. — To make this apron, 3 yards of 
24-inch or 2\ yards of 36-inch material is re- 
quired. Calico is perhaps the best material 
for it, although percale, dimity, or lawn may 
be used. Any of these materials is preferable 
to inexpensive gingham, which is a little too 
stiff to shape well in the ruffle. If gingham is 
used, it should be plain or have only a very 
small check; also, the ruffle should not be so 
full as for other materials. 

For this apron is required a pattern having 
a shaped ruffle that extends down the sides and 
across the lower edge of the apron. Such a 
pattern may be formed by outlining a ruffle of 
the desired width on a plain one-piece apron 
pattern. 

45. Cutting Out the Material. — To 

cut out the material for the mother's apron to 
the best advantage, place the pattern parts on 
it in the manner shown in Fig. 23. Lay the 
material out on the cutting table wrong side up and fold one end 
over, as at a. On this end place the center front of the pattern on 
the fold, as shown. In placing this pattern part, if no fulness is 
provided in the ruffle, you may allow the width of the ruffle, plus the 
amount necessary for its finishing, at the top of the center-front 
gore for a front ruffle portion. You may cut this ruffle piecing 
across the fold and without the aid of a pattern, for the top of the 
apron pattern will shape the ruffle correctly at its lower edge and 




Fig. 22 



§12 



APRONS AND CAPS 



29 



give it the required curve to permit it to blend in with the curve of 
the ruffle pattern. 

Next, cut the material across to b, and bring the free end up to 
the cut edge; then place the ruffle, 
pocket, and band pattern pieces on, 
as shown. As you will observe, the 
front edge of the pocket and the 
ruffle and the center of the band 
should come on a lengthwise thread 
of the material. A pattern is not 
absolutely required for the band, but 
you should use care in cutting it out 
to get it right. When all the pattern 
pieces are placed, cut out the material 
in the usual manner. 

46. It would seem from the 
illustration that considerable material 
is wasted ; but such is not the case, as 
all the scraps left from cutting may 
be utilized in making the bias band- 
ing required for trimming and seam 
finishing. 

For this apron, cut 6 yards of 
banding 1 inch wide. Cut the mate-' 
rial on the true bias if it is plain ; if 
it has a small polka dot, as in this 
case, cut it in line with the polka 
dots. Often, the polka dots are not 
printed evenly on the material, and a 
more attractive finish may be had if 
these dots, instead of the true bias, 
are followed in cutting. 



47. Constructing the Apron. 

To make the mother's apron, first 

join the front ruffle, or piecing, to the 

other ruffle sections with French 

seams and then hem the ruffle all the 

way around its outer edge. Next, measure from the top of the ruffle 

to a point about 21 inches below and make a notch; then gather 




30 



APRONS AND CAPS 



§12 



from this notch around the ruffle to a corresponding notch on the 
opposite side. Join the ruffle to the apron, placing the center front 
of the ruffle at the center front of the apron, bringing the seam to 
the right side, and adjusting the gathers evenly across the bottom. 

Prepare each pocket by finishing with bias banding the curved 
edge that forms its top. Place the banding on with its right side to 
the wrong side of the pocket, and then turn it over to make a finish 
on the right side. Turn the edge under so that the banding will be 
just -J inch wide, and stitch on the top edges. 

With the stitching done, baste the pockets to 
the apron, having the top edge of each pocket 
come in line with the waist line and the side of 
each even with the side of the apron. Cover the 
raw edge of the pocket with bias banding that 
corresponds in width with that just mentioned. 
With the bias finish, cover the seam that joins 
the ruffle to the apron, extending this finish all 
the way around the apron. Last of all, put the 
straight band on, bringing the center of the band 
to the center of the apron, the right side of the 
band to the wrong side of the apron, carefully 
adjusting the gathers on the band in the regular 
way, stitching the band from one edge of the 
apron to the other, and then turning under all 
the free edges of the band and stitching all the 
way around the band. 




ECONOMY APRON 

48. In Fig. 24 is shown an apron known as 
Fig. 24 the economy apron because it can be made of 

strips and scraps of material that are left from a dress or some 
other garment. It consists of three gores that are sufficiently 
narrow to be cut out of small strips of material, as may also the 
two pockets, the band, and the strings. Although this apron is 
simple, its plainness is greatly relieved by the use of rickrack braid, 
which serves as trimming for the apron edges, the pockets, and the 
ends of the strings. 

49. Material and Pattern Requirements. — For the apron 
here shown, striped dimity is used, although dotted Swiss, batiste, 



§ 12 APRONS AND CAPS 31 

chambray, gingham, and even calico may be employed. It requires 
only 1 yard of 40-inch material, and 3^ yards of rickrack braid for 
the trimming. 

A pattern for this apron may be prepared as follows : Use a 
piece of paper that is 27 inches long, or as long as the apron is 
to be, and about 15 inches wide. Slash this paper lengthwise in 
a diagonal line to form two gores, a center-front and a side-front 
gore, as shown in Fig. 25. The front gore for half the pattern 
should measure about 10 inches at the lower end and 6^ inches 
at the upper end, and the side gore about 8-J inches at its lower end 
and 5 inches at its upper end. By thus cutting the paper in a 
diagonal line, there is formed a pattern that gives a desirable shap- 



Fig. 25 

ing toward the waist line and reduces the fulness at that place, for 
the wide parts of the gores form the lower edge of the apron, and 
the narrow parts, the upper edge. Curve the waist-line edge of the 
pattern a trifle to make it fit well on the figure, and curve the lower 
edge of each pattern section, also, in order to make the seam edges 
of the same length as the center front. 

The pocket may be made plain or shaped as shown in Fig. 24. 
Outline it on the side gore of the apron pattern, making it 9 inches 
long on the side seam line, and then trace a separate pattern. 

50. Cutting- Out the Material. — To cut out the material for 
the economy apron, place the pattern pieces on the material as 
shown in Fig. 25. As the gores are shaped a trifle at the top, the 



32 



APRONS AND CAPS 



12 



sicle-gore pattern part may be slipped alongside the front-gore part 
and the gores cut out with practically no waste of material. Cut 
the strings and the band, for which no pattern pieces are really 
required, as previously directed. Place the pocket pattern, like the 
panel parts of the apron, on two thicknesses of material. 

Cut out the material in the manner directed for cutting out the 
other aprons, remembering, while cutting, the convenience of straight 
seam lines. 



51. Sewing on Rickrack by Hand. — In making the econ- 
omy apron, first prepare the pocket for application by hemming its 

upper edge, including the straight 
and curved edges, and applying 
the rickrack braid to the hemmed 
edges. 

If an especially neat apron is 
desired, a better quality of rick- 
rack braid may be sewed on in 
the manner illustrated in Fig. 26, 
that is, by hand. Such work is 
rather tedious, but the finish is 
attractive and well worth the time 
required. 

To sew braid on in this manner, 
take a stitch, as at a, by slipping 
the needle along the inside edge 
of the hem and bringing it out 
FlG - 26 through the hem and the point of 

the braid, as at b. Then take a tiny overhand-stitch at this point 
before proceeding to take the next stitch through the hem. Thus, 
at every point of the braid, there will be two stitches, which will 
serve to hold the braid securely. By slipping the needle inside the 
hem, all the stitches, except the tiny ones that join the braid to the 
hem, will be neatly covered. 

Another method of sewing on rickrack is to crease or baste a 
narrow hem, then to place the rickrack over the right side of the 
hem as directed for sewing it on by machine, and to secure it and at 
the same time add a decorative touch with embroidery floss of con- 
trasting color. In using the embroidery floss, take overcasting- or 
catch-stitches from just outside the indented portion of one scallop 




§ 12 APRONS AND CAPS 33 

of the rickrack over the rickrack, so that the thread falls just outside 
the indented portion of the next scallop ; or, take back-stitches or 
seed-stitches in each scallop, continuing the threads from one scallop 
to another on the wrong side of the material. 

52. Sewing- on Rickrack by Machine. — For a work apron 
on which so much braid is used, it is advisable to sew the braid on 
by machine. 

To do this properly, first turn a narrow hem; then stitch the 

rickrack braid to the edge of the ^ ^ 

hem in the manner shown at a, 
Fig. 27, placing this over the right \ 1§| 
side of the hem if you wish to have ^illHf 
all the rickrack show, or over the 
wrong side of the hem if you prefer ( s |- 
to have merely one edge of the rick- 
rack extend from underneath the 
hem. Either method is permissible. . -p(- r 
Secure the inner points of the rick- 
rack all the way around, with the * 
stitching of the hem, as shown at b. 

Do this work very carefully, so as v * c * WMPS^j ' , 

not to draw or stretch the braid in ^ , ■■ ' ■) 

any place and yet catch it well so that 

• • Fig 27 

it will not look untidy. Also, take 

extreme care to shape the corners well, as at c, and not make them 

appear drawn where the braid turns. 

53. Constructing- the Apron. — When the braid is sewed to 
the pockets, baste them in the position planned for them on the 
side gores. Turn the lower edge of the pocket under only once, 
as a hem that requires a double turn, would provide a bulky, 
undesirable finish. Do not turn under the sides of the pocket as 
these edges will be included in the finishing of the apron portion. 
Stitch along the straight upper edge of each pocket and across its 
lower edge; then stitch the center gore of the apron to the side 
gores, using a French seam or a flat fell seam as a finish and taking 
care to catch the long, straight edges of the pockets in with the side 
seams in stitching. 

Next, turn a narrow hem around the sides and the bottom of the 
apron, and apply the rickrack braid to the hemmed edges. Then 



34 



APRONS AND CAPS 



§12 



hem the strings and finish one end of each with rickrack braid. 
Before putting on the band, gather the waist line of the apron. 
Then apply the band, adjust the strings in each end, and complete 

the apron by stitching the band in 

position. 




MAID'S APROIV 

54. In Fig. 28 is shown a maid's 
apron. It is neat and attractive in 
appearance, and may be made with 
little labor. 

55. Material and Pattern Re- 
quirements. — A firm quality of lawn, 
the kind that is sometimes referred to 
as nurse's lawn, is very satisfactory for 
an apron of this kind, as it is a little 
coarse and crisp in weave, does not 
take up dirt readily, and wears well. 

No pattern is required to cut out an 
apron of this style. As a rule, just one 
width of 40-inch muslin or lawn long 
enough for the apron, plus 3^ to 5 inches 
for a hem, is used for the apron por- 
tion, and 1 yard of additional material 
is used for the straps, bib, bands, and 
strings. 

Two straps pass over the shoulders, 

and each of these is cut lengthwise of 

the material and 4^ inches wide, a hem 

that is about f inch wide being turned 

on each side of the straps. Across the 

front is a Y-shaped bib that is 5 inches 

wide at the top, 3^ inches wide at the 

bottom, and about 8 inches long, which 

includes allowance for a 2-inch hem. 

To determine how long the straps should be, measure from the 

back waist line over the shoulder to the front waist line. Each 

strap may be cut according to the measurement thus obtained, plus 

1 inch for the overlapping of the straps on the band at the waist line. 



Fig. 28 



§ 12 APRONS AND CAPS 35 

The band should be cut about 4 inches shorter than the waist 
measure, as it must come well around the figure so that the straps 
may be secured to it. Two strips should be provided for this. 

56. Constructing- the Apron. — In preparing the piece for 
the apron portion, tear both ends of the material, so that it will be 
straightened as much as possible. Material so prepared permits 
more even adjustment of the gathers around the waist line and also 
makes the ironing of the apron easier. Turn a hem 3^ to 5 inches 
wide at one end of the apron piece and stitch it in position ; also, 
stitch the cpen ends of the hem so that they cannot pull out. 

Next, turn and stitch the 2-inch hem at the top of the bib and 
join the side edges of the bib to the straps, stitching the bib in with 
the hems of the straps and thus concealing the raw edges. 

Gather the apron and adjust it to one of the strips provided for 
the band, and baste the bib and straps to the center of the upper edge 
of this strip, bringing the seams, in each case, to the right side. Then 
baste the other strip to the upper edge of the under strip, with the 
bib between. At this stage, slip on the apron to make sure that the 
bib is in the correct position and the length of the straps is exact. 
Then, after stitching the seams basted in the band, turn under the 
free edge of the upper strip and baste it flat over the lower seam. 

Finish the band and the strings the same as those for other aprons, 
and the back ends of the straps with a f-inch hem. Sew two but- 
tons to the straps, and work buttonholes to correspond on the band 
of the apron so as to secure the straps in position. If the straps 
are made narrower than called for here, they will slip off the 
shoulder unless they are crossed in the back. In such a case, you 
will have to cut them 2 inches longer to permit of the crossing. 

57. Some maids' aprons have no bib. In such an event, use the 
extra material left from the straps on one side of the straight mate- 
rial to make the skirt portion fuller. Also, omit the strings and use a 
straight band about 1\ inches wide at the waist line. Make the band 
just large enough to extend around the waist and lap it enough to 
button. Two buttons and two buttonholes are generally used to 
fasten such a band around the waist. 



36 



APRONS AND CAPS 



§12 



SQUARE SEWING APRON 

58. In Fig. 29 is shown another convenient apron, known as the 
square sewing apron, that requires very little material. In fact, only 
f yard of 40-inch lawn or dimity is needed for the apron, and 3 yards 
of Maltese or Valenciennes lace edging for the trimming. This 
apron has a big, roomy pocket that is substantially sewed in with 
the seams, thus making the apron a very con- 
venient one for sewing. 

59. Preparing the Pattern. — For this 
apron, a pattern made in a manner similar to the 
economy-apron pattern but with smaller mea- 
surements is required. For instance, use a piece 
of paper about 20 inches long and 10 inches 
wide. Then slash this diagonally lengthwise to 
make the front gore measure about 5 inches at 
the upper edge and 7 inches at the lower edge. 
Mark for the ruffle portion on the front gore of 
the pattern by measuring up about 6 inches from 
the lower edge and drawing a line straight 
across. Then, for the pocket portion, measure 
up 5 inches and draw another line straight 
across. Cut off the ruffle portion, but merely 
trace the pocket so as to make a separate pat- 
tern, for the front gore of the apron must 
extend under the pocket to the ruffle. 

60. Cutting Out the Material. — In 

order to cut out the material for this apron, 
place the pattern parts on the material as shown 
in Fig. 30. To provide fulness in the ruffle, place the center front 
of the ruffle pattern 4 or 5 inches from the fold, as shown. Cut the 
band and the strings on the straight grain of the material, making the 
band about 2 inches wide and 16 inches long and each of the strings, 
2\ inches wide and 18 inches long. 

61. Constructing: the Apron. — Begin to make the square 
sewing apron by sewing lace to the top of the pocket and then pinning 
the pocket very carefully to the bottom part of the front gore of the 
apron. Gather the ruffle at its upper edge and join it to the apron; 




Fig. 29 



12 



APRONS AND CAPS 



37 



then join the side gores to the apron, finishing all of them with 
French seams. Last of all, sew the lace on the outer edge in the 
regular way, put the band 
on, and finish the strings. 




SEWIXG-BAG APRO\ 

62. In Fig. 31 is shown 
a novel apron that is known 
as the sewing-bag apron, 
because of the large pocket 
running across the front 
and serving as a sewing bag. 
Such an apron is a con- 
venience for every woman 
whose time for sewing is 
limited, for the pocket, or bag, will hold a large quantity of 
sewing material; in fact, the apron portion itself may be folded 
inside, when the bag will appear as shown in Fig. 32. Thus, the bag 
part serves to keep the sewing material together and the apron 
clean. It may be conveniently carried from place to place, or used 
to keep the sewing materials together for work at odd moments. 

63. Material Requirements. — For this apron 1^ yards of 
27- or 32-inch material that is the same on both sides is required. 
Material 27 inches wide is perhaps better than the 32-inch material, 
as its selvage edge may be utilized as a finish. Ribbon about 1 inch 
wide is used for trimming, 4^ or 5 yards being sufficient. 

64. Constructing: the Apron. — If you use 27-inch material 
for this apron, first cut a strip for the band from one end ; if the 
material is wider than 27 inches, cut a lengthwise strip from one 
edge in order to leave a 27-inch width and utilize this strip for cut- 
ting the band. Next, turn a 1^-inch hem at one end of the 27-inch 
width; then measure to a point about 27 inches from the edge of 
this hem, turn the material back evenly at this point, and stitch 
1^ inches from the fold thus made. 

Next, turn the material over; then turn the unhemmed end back 
over the tuck and fold the hemmed end back on the material in 
order to bring the hem directly over the tuck. With the material 
folded in this manner to form the bzg portion shown in Fig. 31, 



38 



APRONS AND CAPS 



§12 



stitch the edges, or sides, together, beginning 
at the stitching in the hem and continuing to 
the fold, or lower edge. Secure the ends of 
the stitching firmly so as to prevent them from 
pulling out. 

Across the top of the apron, put a small 
band whose ends have been hemmed to prevent 
fraying, and run a ribbon through this band to 
provide strings for around the waist. Then, 
so that the bag part of the apron may be 
drawn up, as shown in Fig. 32, buttonhole or 
overcast the ends of the hem and the tuck and 
run ribbons through them. Cut both ribbons 
almost three times as long as the hem or tuck 
and run each one through the casing on both 
sides, starting one ribbon at one opening and 
the other at the opposite opening. Where the 
ends meet, turn the raw edges under a trifle, 
lap them, and sew over and over the lap so 
that the joining will be smooth and strong. 

Small pockets like those shown in Fig. 31 
are convenient if placed just above the bag 
part of the apron; however, they are not absolutely necessary, as 
the bag itself usually provides sufficient space for most purposes. 




Fig. 31 




Fig. 32 



Cut these pockets so that, when finished, they will not be more than 
about 3£ inches wide and 4 inches long. 



§12 



APRONS AND CAPS 



39 



CIRCULAR SEWING APRON 

65. In Fig. 33 is shown a circular sewing apron that is practical 
and convenient for the woman or the girl who sews a great deal or 
for wear in shops, where frills are tabooed and only service is 
considered. 

Although only 1 yard of 36-inch material is required for this 
apron, it is made so as to cover the skirt well, and it has a large 
pocket, which is really a necessary part of a sewing or shop apron. 

66. Preparing- the Pattern. — A pattern for an apron such 
as this may be outlined on a circular-skirt pattern. If you wish to 
make such a pattern, follow the waist-line curve of the skirt pattern 
for the upper edge ; then, 
to draw the lower edge of 
the pattern, measure down 
on the center-front line 
about 22 inches, or the 
length you wish the apron, 
and from this point draw a 
curved line to a point on 
the center-back line 5 or 
6 inches below the waist 
line. In drawing this curve, 
you may be guided by 
Fig. 34, which shows the 
apron pattern laid on the 
material. 

Make the pocket pattern 
about 5 inches deep and 
5 inches wide, shaping it as illustrated. Make the pattern for the 
band about 2 inches wide and 2 inches longer than the waist mea- 
surement, or simply cut a strip of material of these dimensions, 
plus allowance for seams. 

67. Cutting Out the Material and Making the Apron. 

With the patterns prepared, secure them to the material in the man- 
ner illustrated in Fig. 34, and then cut out the apron parts in the 
usual manner. Also, cut 2\ yards of bias strip to finish the edge of 
the apron and the top of the pocket, following the plan indicated 
in the illustration. 




Fig. 33 



40 



APRONS AND CAPS 



12 



Construct the apron by securing the apron part to the band, easing 
it on without gathers. Apply the bias binding to the top of the 
pocket and around the outer edge of the apron, and join the pocket 
to the skirt of the apron with two rows of stitching, placing these 




Fig. 34 



i inch apart, but first turning under the edges of the pocket a seam's 
width so as to give a good finish. Complete the apron band at the 
back by working a buttonhole in the right-hand end and sewing a 
button on the other end. 



CLOTHES-PBf APRON 



68. In Fig. 35 is shown a very neat style of clothes-pin apron. 
While it must be admitted that not every woman will be interested 
in this style of apron, yet clothes-pin aprons have a definite purpose 
in the home, for they serve to keep clothes pins clean and always 
in place. 

The style of clothes-pin apron here illustrated need not, however, 
be restricted to the holding of clothes pins, as it will serve excellently 
as a sewing apron, its big pocket proving a decided convenience. 
Because of its durability and its convenient pocket, such an apron 
also makes a good shop sewing apron. 

09. Material Requirements. — To develop the clothes-pin 
apron, 1 yard of tan galatea and 2\ to 3 yards of bias binding are 
required. Of course, other materials may be used, as, for example, 
striped ticking, but the material must be substantial, for when the 
pocket is full of clothes pins it is carrying considerable weight. 

If the style of apron shown is to be made up as a home or a shop 
sewing apron, then sateen, with binding of the same color as the 
material, may well be used. 



12 



APRONS AND CAPS 



41 



70. Preparing the Pattern. — The pattern for an apron such 
as this may be formed by using a one-piece apron pattern of the 
length you desire and outlining on this the pocket 
portion. By reference to Fig. 36, you will 
observe that the apron and pocket sections are 
made the same length and width, the pocket pat- 
tern differing only in the manner in which it is 
shaped at the sides. 



71. Cutting . Out the Material and 
Making- the Apron. — Arrange the pattern 
pieces on the material in the manner indicated in 
Fig. 36, so that their center fronts are on the 
lengthwise fold. In cutting, allow a ^-inch seam 
at the waist line, but omit the seam allowance on 
the other edges, as the binding takes care of this. 

To make the apron, first bind the curved edges 
of the pocket and pin the pocket in position ; then 
baste the binding all around the outer apron and 
pocket edges and bind them together, taking care 
that the binding catches the material well so that 
the apron will not be faulty. Put a straight band 
on the apron and finish the ends of the band with 
a buttonhole and button, securing the button very 
firmly so that it will withstand the strain to which 
it will be subjected. 




Fig. 35 



If you want a pocket with two compartments, you may place a 



Fold 




Fig. 36 



row of stitching down the center front of the apron, through both 
the pocket and the apron. 



42 APRONS AND CAPS § 12 



SUNBONNETS AND SUN HATS 



STYLES AND MATERIALS 

72. As sunbonnets and sun hats are invaluable to many women 
who must be out-of-doors a great deal, particularly those who live in 
the country, it seems useless to dwell at any length on their merits 
and advantages. Some persons object to bonnets on the ground 
that they are too warm, and prefer sun hats; others, on the con- 
trary, like the protection that sunbonnets give and for this reason 
prefer them. To meet all requirements, therefore, both sunbonnets 
and sun hats are considered. 

With a knowledge of the bonnet and hat here described, you 
should be able to develop others to suit your fancy or to agree with 
some style you may see brought out elsewhere. If a pattern that 
fits well is at hand, the method of trimming is easy, and many 
varieties may be made. For example, you may omit the circular 
ruffle, sew the crown to the head-piece without a heading, button 
the crown to the head-piece instead of shirring it, and so on. 

73. Chambray seems to be the material especially designed for 
the making of sunbonnets and sun hats. It not only shapes up nicer 
and retains starch longer than any other material, but yields itself 
readily to the iron, a very desirable quality in any material that 
must be starched, as, for example, the head-piece of a sunbonnet 
or a sun hat. 



CIRCULAR-RUFFLE SUNBONNET 

74. In Fig. 37 (a) and (&) are shown the front and the side 
view of a sunbonnet that, because of its circular ruffle, may be 
called the circular-ruffle sunbonnet. This bonnet is perhaps as 
practical as any style of sunbonnet can be. It is made so as to pro- 
tect both the face and the neck, and its head-piece is so curved that 
the ruffle attached to it does not obstruct the view at the sides — a 
feature that is very desirable in a sunbonnet. If the head-piece of 
a sunbonnet is square, the ruffles at the sides act as blinders, and 
thus cause the wearer much discomfort. 

In addition to being practical, this bonnet is attractive, the ruffles, 
the crown, and the strings being ornamented with linen torchon 



12 



APRONS AND CAPS 



43 



lace and the head-piece being neatly quilted. Another feature of 
this sunbonnet is that the crown is attached to the head-piece by 
means of small snap fasteners, which make it easy to take the bonnet 
apart and then put it together again, thus simplifying the work 
of laundering. 

75. Material and Pattern Requirements. — For the 

circular-ruffle sunbonnet are required 1| yards of 32-inch cham- 
bray, 5 yards of linen tor- 
chon lace § inch wide, and 
seventeen small snap fast- 
eners. 

A regulation sunbonnet 
pattern with the head-piece 
shaped as illustrated should 
be used in cutting the mate- 
rial. Such patterns are 
usually made in only an 
average size. If the head 
for which the bonnet is to 
be made is very small, the 
material to be used may be 
cut without any seam allow- 
ance, or, if necessary, the 
pattern itself may be cut 
from | to 1 inch smaller 
all the way around. On 
the other hand, if the head 
is extremely large or if the 
hair is dressed full and 
fluffy, then a generous seam allowance may be made. However, as 
a general rule, the original bonnet pattern will prove to be a con- 
venient, satisfactory size. A sunbonnet pattern of the kind required 
for this style is well worth keeping, for it may be used as a founda- 
tion for other styles of caps and bonnets and the pattern sections 
altered slightly to produce the desired effect. 

76. Preparing the Interlining. — In order that the head- 
piece of the sunbonnet may have sufficient body, a stiff interlining 
must be provided. This interlining should be prepared before the 
sunbonnet is cut out. 




Fig. 37 



44 APRONS AND CAPS § 12 

The best material for interlining is that obtained from the skirt 
part of an old nainsook nightgown or from the back of a man's 
shirt that is worn past mending. If an old shirt is used, though, 
it must be free from any cord ; that is, the weave must be even and 
smooth. Material of this kind, having been washed so many times 
that all the stiffening has been removed, is soft enough to absorb 
starch and to be quilted through more evenly than new material. 
Sometimes, when new material that is starched is used for this pur- 
pose, the needle will have a tendency to cut it; whereas, if the 
material is old, there is little danger. 

For stiffening, two thicknesses of the material should be used, 
provided it is fairly heavy; if it is very thin, then three thicknesses 
will serve the purpose better. 

In preparing the material for this purpose, tear it rather than cut 
it. Tearing tends to straighten the warp and woof threads, making 

Fold 



Fig. 38 

it possible to get a perfectly straight piece of material, which 
facilitates stitching and laundering. Also, make sure that the pieces 
are 1 or 2 inches longer on all sides than the pattern of the head- 
piece of the bonnet, so that the frayed edges may be trimmed away 
when the pattern is placed on the fabric. 

Mix up, next, for stiffening the material, a small quantity of cold 
starch to about the consistency required for starching stiff cuffs or 
the neckbands of shirts; that is, use about 2 heaping teaspoonfuls 
of cold starch to 1 teacupful of water. If you put 2 or 3 drops of 
turpentine into the starch, the ironing will be a little bit easier, as 
turpentine has a tendency to keep the starch from sticking to the 
iron. 

With the material prepared and the starch made, dip the pieces 
for the head-piece into the starch and then stretch them out smooth, 



§ 12 APRONS AND CAPS 45 

placing one piece on top of the other and taking care that not a 
wrinkle creeps in at any place. Then iron them together with a hot 
iron. The starch will cause them to stick together and they will be 
just as one thickness of cloth. 

77. Cutting- Out the Material. — Fold through the center, 
lengthwise, the chambray or whatever material is to be used for the 
sunbonnet, lay it out on the cutting table, and then proceed to pin 
to it the pattern parts, following the plan illustrated in Fig. 38. 
Have the straight edge of the crown pattern come on the fold of the 
material. Place the straight edge of the head-piece along the 
selvage, as the selvage will make a finish for the head-piece. Place 
the ruffle portion of the pattern with its 
center on the fold so as to avoid a seam 
in the ruffle, it being always better to 
make a finish of this kind without a 
seam. If, by chance, you have to piece 
the ruffle, roll and whip the edges to- 
gether very carefully so that the seam 
will show as little as possible. 

78. Four strings are needed for this 
bonnet, two at the back to make a bow, 
and two for tying the bonnet on. Make 
them about 2f inches wide and IS inches 
long, and cut them on the straight grain 
of the cloth, with or without the aid of 
a pattern. 

79. Having placed the pattern pieces 
on the material in the manner illus- 
trated, cut the bonnet material out, allowing | inch for seams and 
using sharp shears so as to insure the smooth, even edge so neces- 
sary where a very narrow hem is used as a finish. Measure up 
4 inches on each side of the crown from its lower edge and connect 
these points with a traced line to mark the position of the casing 
that extends across the back. Also, cut out the stiffened lining for 
the head-piece, making it just the same in size as the head-piece 
material and allowing the same width of seam. 

80. Constructing the Sunbonnet. — Begin the making of 

the sunbonnet by hemming the outer edge of the ruffle and also 




46 



APRONS AND CAPS 



12 



the crown and sewing on the lace. These parts may be finished 
with a rolled hem or with a tiny hem and the lace then whipped 
on, or the machine hemmer may be used and the lace sewed on at 
the same time the hemming is done. 

After finishing the ruffle and the crown, hem the sides of each 
string and sew lace on one end of each. Next, gather the ruffle 
around its inside edge, keeping the gathering thread a scant \ inch 
from the edge. As the ruffle is cut circular, there are very few 
gathers to be used ; however, a gathering thread helps to ease in the 

fulness and to make 
the ruffle fit better on 
the head-piece. 

Next, place the 
wrong side of one piece 
of the head-piece over 
the starched piece, or 
stiffening material, and, 
to hold the chambray 
securely to the stiffened 
interlining, baste every 
2 or 3 inches until the 
entire head-piece is 
covered with basting- 
stitches, as in Fig. 39. 
Then place the ruffle on 
this, with its center 
front directly over the 
center front of the 
head-piece, and baste 
all the way around in 
a |-inch seam, as 
shown in Fig. 40, tak- 
ing care to have the 
gathers adjusted evenly. When this basting is done, place the 
remaining piece of the head-piece material over the ruffle and baste 
it in position; then stitch all the way around, as shown. 

When the stitching is done, remove the basting thread, trim the 
seam edge up to within a little more than $ inch of the stitching, 
and turn the ruffle out, taking care in doing this not to crease the 
starched piece unnecessarily and thus cause wrinkles to form in it. 




Fig. 40 



§ 12 APRONS AND CAPS 47 

Next, crease the edge of the head-piece back from the ruffle and 
baste so that it does not overlap the ruffle at any place. 

81. With the top piece of the head-piece basted in position, it 
is ready to be stitched, or quilted. There are many attractive ways 
in which a head-piece may be stitched, and if you are very handy 
at quilting you should be able to work out some unique designs on 
this part of the sunbonnet. The quilting shown on the bonnet is 
perhaps the simplest of all. ways; but, of course, if you feel capable 
of quilting in more elaborate designs, you may work out designs to 
suit your fancy. In either case, work out the arrangement by 
marking the lines as you desire them, not directly on the material, 
however, but on the pattern for the head-piece. Take care to space 
the lines equally in order to make the quilting symmetrical. 

Then pin the pattern thus prepared to the head-piece and trace 
these lines on the material, taking care to keep each line as true 
and as even as possible. With this done, stitch the head-piece mate- 
rial directly in the traced lines, stitching in double rows if you are 
following the plan shown in Fig. 37. 

82. When the head-piece is stitched, or quilted, begin at its 
center, at a distance of about 1 inch from the edge, as shown in 
Fig. 41, and mark for the snap fasteners with pins, using the cross- 
slots of the Picken dressmaker's gauge as a marker, so that they 
will be spaced 1^ inches apart. The part of the snap fastener that 
has the socket should be used on the head-piece. Secure the 
fasteners in place, working from the center up and down and 
sewing through and through the head-piece material so that they 
will be sure to hold well. 

With this work done, proceed to put the casings on the crown of 
the bonnet. Cut the material for the casings a scant f inch wide, 
and make a tiny turn on each edge. Place one casing strip f inch 
from the inside edge of the stitching around the crown and stitch 
it on both sides, so that it will hold well. 

Next, place a similar casing over the traced line near the bottom 
part of the crown, which determines where the ruffle part begins. 
In stitching this casing on, take care to start it just back of the casing 
that goes around the crown, so that the cord that slips through it 
may be brought out without any interference. 

Run the shirring cord in the casing that passes around the crown 
of the bonnet, as well as in that at the bottom. The cord for this 



48 



APRONS AND CAPS 



§12 



purpose should be firm twine or very narrow linen tape, so that 
it will be flat and not too large to go through the casing. When 
the cord is run all the way around, draw the crown up and adjust 
the fulness as it should be, taking care to have more fulness at the 
top of the crown than at the sides. 

Pin the crown to the head-piece and smooth the gathers out 
just as they should be when the bonnet is on the head. By observ- 
ing Fig. 37 carefully, you may gain a good idea of how this should be. 




Fig. 41 



With the cap thus pinned together and adjusted, mark the posi- 
tion of each fastener, placing a pin opposite each fastener on the 
head-piece, and then sew them in place. 

In sewing the snap fasteners on the crown, take care not to catch 
the stitches through the cord in the casing, for this would make it 
impossible to draw the shirring cords up and to let them out when 
the bonnet is laundered. The ends of the cords that are run 
through the casing are not tidy if allowed to hang loose. There- 
fore, if you desire, you may conceal them by sewing below the 
casing across the bottom of the bonnet a tiny bag — say 2 inches 
square — into which you may tuck the strings. 



§ 12 APRONS AND CAPS 49 

83. Next, give attention to the strings. Make two tiny plaits 
in the unfinished ends of each string that goes across the back, so 
that they will occupy a space not more than 1 inch wide ; place them 
just above the bottom of the ruffle and sew them on so that when 
they are laid back and tied the seam joining will be concealed. 

Proceed, next, to sew in place the strings with which to tie the 
bonnet on, first putting the bonnet on the head in order to determine 
just where the strings should come. If the bonnet is to be tied, put 
the strings back from 2 to 2\ inches on each side of the head-piece. 
In sewing them in place, overhand them very closely so that they 
will not pull away any when the bonnet is worn. In rare instances, 
the tie strings are dispensed with and a hat pin is used to hold the 
sunbonnet on. 

84. If you take care to keep a bonnet of this kind clean 
while you are making it, it will not have to be laundered before you 
wear it; a very careful pressing in such cases will usually make it 
fit for wear for some time. However, to wash and iron it will, as 
a rule, add much to its appearance, and laundering in the beginning 
is generally worth while. 



SISBOSNET VARIATIONS 



85. The sunbonnet just described is very pretty when made up 
in sheer white muslin and with an embroidery ruffle instead of a 
shaped ruffle. Such a bonnet may be finished in the same way as the 
circular-ruffle sunbonnet, and as the embroidery ruffle replaces the 
shaped ruffle, the time consumed in finishing the bonnet is not so 
great. 

Another style of dress-up sunbonnet may be developed by using 
dotted Swiss for the crown and strings and sheer muslin for the 
head-piece with an edging of narrow lace. This style may be made 
with square lower corners rather than in cutaway effect. 

86. Women who desire a bonnet merely for service will find a 
good quality of Japanese straw matting, sometimes called tea strazv, 
satisfactory for making bonnets. This material may be purchased 
in nearly all stores that sell dry goods or carpets. Sometimes, plain 
tea straw such as is used in wrapping chests of tea can be obtained 
free of charge in tea or grocery stores. Only ^ yard is required fof 
the head-piece of a sunbonnet. 



50 



APRONS AND CAPS 



§12 



The matting may be combined with dark-colored satin, poplin, per- 
caline, or any material that will not soil readily, for it is quite 
impossible to launder a bonnet of this kind. 

In making this kind of bonnet, place the matting over one thickness 
of the bonnet material and then stitch across two or three times 
merely to hold the pieces together. Turn up over the matting the 
edge of the underneath piece of the head-piece, and then sew a 
ruffle to the head-piece with a heading just large enough to cover 
the raw seam of the edge that is turned over. If you wish, you may 
omit the casing around the crown and finish the edge with a narrow 
hem ; in this case you may adjust the fulness to the head-piece of the 
crown and stitch it in position with the sewing machine. Put in the 

gathers across the back by machine and 
hold them securely in place with a few 
rows of stitching. Strings may or may 
not be used, as you desire. 




SUN HAT 



87. In Fig. 42 is shown a covering 
for the head that so closely resembles a 
sunbonnet as to justify calling it a sun 
hat. Its crown consists of all-over em- 
\ broidery, and the head-piece is made of 
Indian linon or a firm quality of lawn, 
and then ornamented with a neat quilting 
design and trimmed with embroidery edging. Besides being dainty 
and attractive, it has the advantage of being easy to make and to 
launder ; however, where protection from the sun is absolutely essen- 
tial, this hat will not answer so well as a sunbonnet. 



Fig. 42 



88. Material and Pattern Requirements. — The size of 
this hat may be regulated in the same manner as that of the sun- 
bonnet, and as it is of a style that is splendid for little folks, it may 
be used for this purpose by decreasing the head-size. 

It also offers another opportunity to use up left-overs from the 
scrap bag, provided such material happens to be at hand, for the 
crown simply requires a piece of all-over embroidery 16 inches long 
and 23 or 24 inches wide, and the head-piece only \ yard of plain 
material, with 1\ yards of embroidery edging for trimming. 



§ 12 APRONS AND CAPS 51 

For cutting out this hat, provide a pattern having a crown portion 
shaped to give the effect shown in Fig. 42 and a head-size, or brim 
portion, that will give a drooping effect. 

89. Constructing the Hat. — In preparing the stiffening for 
the head-piece, use three thicknesses of material, for the head-piece 
of a hat made of sheer material requires more stiffening than does 
the head-piece of a sunbonnet made of chambray. 

Put the ruffle on the head-piece in the same manner as in making 
the circular-ruffle sunbonnet, but, as the edge of the ruffle is perfectly- 
straight, use more gathers and exercise greater care in so doing. 

When the ruffle is in position and the head-piece has been basted 
from the right side, proceed to mark for any style of quilting you 
desire by placing a marked pattern on the brim and tracing off the 
pattern. 

When the quilting is finished, gather the curved edge of the 
crown and baste it to the head-piece, basting £ inch from the edge. 
Bind this edge of the crown and head-piece together with bias bind- 
ing of light-weight lawn or muslin, taking care to trim the seam 
off close, so that it will not appear bunchy or show through too 
much from the right side. 

Next, bind or face the lower edge of the crown part of the hat 
with ^-inch bias binding and bind the unfinished ends of the head- 
piece. Work buttonholes on its right-hand side, one buttonhole at 
the top and one at the bottom, and sew buttons on the left-hand 
side of the head-piece to correspond with the buttonholes on the 
right-hand side, so that the crown of the hat may be opened up in 
laundering. 

The buttonholes will be rather difficult to make, because the head- 
piece is stiff; however, if you sew around each buttonhole with the 
sewing machine before you work the buttonhole you will not have 
to put the buttonhole stitches close together. 

Next, work four buttonholes in the right-hand side of the crown, 
and then on the left sew three buttons to correspond with the first 
three buttonholes on the right. When the three buttons are but- 
toned, the fourth buttonhole buttons down over the button and 
buttonhole at the extreme edge of the head-piece, thus forming a 
Y-shaped effect. 



APRONS AND CAPS 



EXAMINATION QUESTIONS 

(1) (a) What are the essential points in the construction of house 
aprons? (&) Why should material of good quality be used for such aprons? 

(2) (a) What are the advantages of a sleeved apron? (6) What is the 
purpose of the darts in the front of the sleeved apron? 

(3) What precautions must be observed in finishing the neck of the 
sleeved apron to prevent it from stretching? 

(4) What is the object of the seam on the shoulder of the kimono apron? 

(5) Why is it best to trim a square neck out in fitting rather than before? 

(6) Why should only a narrow seam be taken up in the application of a 
placket strip on an opening made in the center of an apron section? 

(7) What is the advantage of turning all the seams to the inside in 
making a belt like the one shown on the kimono apron? 

(8) What regulates the length of apron strings? 

(9) Why is it impractical to use lace on the sides of apron strings? 

(10) Why is it best to turn and stitch a band on the right side of 
an apron? 

(11) (a) In stitching in the insertion in an apron like the pointed-panel 
apron, of what must one be careful? (&) Why should lace be held full or 
mitered at the points in making a pointed-panel apron? 

(12) (a) Why is it desirable to use the rolled hem in putting on a pocket 
made of sheer material? (b) Why is it necessary to fasten the pocket of the 
valentine apron securely in position? 

(13) What precautions must be taken in sewing rickrack braid on: (a) by 
machine? (&) by hand? 

(14) (a) What kind of material is best for a starched interlining such as 
that used for a sunbonnet? (b) Why is it advisable to tear the pieces for 
such an interlining? 

(15) How can the size of a sunbonnet be regulated? 



§12 



CONTENTS 

House Aprons and Caps — Styles and Materials. 

Bodice Apron 

Applying Bias Binding . . . 

Long-Sleeved House Apron 

Petticoat for Wear With Sleeved Apron 11 

Sweeping Cape 12 

Kimono Apron 14 

Fancy and Sewing Aprons-^Materials and Styles 20 

Apron Strings and Bands 21 

Pointed-Panel Apron 24 

Valentine Apron 25 

Mother's Apron 28 

Economy Apron 30 

Sewing on Rkkrack . . . . . 32 

Maid's Apron 34 

Square Sewing Apron 36 

Sewing-Bag Apron . 37 

Circular Sewing Apron 39 

Clothes-Pin Apron 40 

Sunbonnets and Sun Hats — Styles and Materials 42 

Circular-Ruffle Sunbonnet 42 

Sunbonnet Variations - : ; 49 

Sun Hat .50 



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